This is a written interview with my friend and National Defense University Library co-worker, Lily McGovern. In September 2001, Lily was a reference librarian at the Pentagon Library (PL) . The Library was in the section of the Pentagon hit by the plane, but because it mostly in the inner most or A ring, the plane did not penetrate that far into the building.
During the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—60 years to the day after construction began on the Pentagon—a hijacked plane struck the building, killing 189 people and damaging roughly one-third of the building.From History.Com
- Where were you when the plane hit and what were you doing?
I was at my desk in the Pentagon Library (PL). I had been on vacation and it was my first day back at work. Someone heard about events in New York so we were watching the planes hit the World Trade Center on the TV in the PL. It was upsetting to watch the tragedy in NY, especially the second plane hitting the World Trade Center and the collapse of the Twin Towers, so I decided to get back to work at my desk.
I should add for anyone who is not familiar with the layout of the Pentagon that the PL was previously in space that straddled wedges 1 and 2 of the Pentagon renovation project. The temporary wall erected between wedge 1 and wedge 2 was actually in the library area. There was a lot of planning and physical work to rearrange the PL and squeeze into a much smaller space. Since the temporary wall between the renovation wedges cut off the A ring at the PL, the library gained some space from what had been the A ring corridor. The front door was now in the A ring. For over a year we could hear the sounds of wedge 1 being stripped to the bare concrete, construction equipment backing up, jackhammers, saws, drills and all that.
When I heard the big boom, I immediately thought that someone had dropped a big heavy something in wedge 1. They were moving offices into the renovated area and we knew that shelving was being installed in the part of wedge 1 where the PL would be.
Note: From the Pentagon Renovation Program, Wikipedia:
Wedge 1 was the first above-ground section of the Pentagon to undergo renovation. Demolition of the existing structure and hazardous material abatement began in 1998, and the first move-in of tenants occurred in February 2001. The last tenants moved in on February 6, 2003.
The renovation of Wedge 1 involved the renovation of one million square feet of space. This involved the removal of 83 million pounds of debris (70% of this was able to be recycled), and 28 million pounds of hazardous material. The renovation also saw the installation of eight new passenger elevators, new blast-resistant windows, escalators traversing all five floors, skylights, a new HVAC system, a new communications infrastructure, and a new open-plan office layout.
2. How as the word spread on what to do? What did you do?
One of my coworkers saw the heavy glass doors of the PL swing open as we heard the big boom. He yelled that it was a bomb and to get away from the windows which lined that side of the library. I recall being told to evacuate the PL and that people who exited using our fire evacuation route came back saying there was smoke that direction. I was checking with the other librarians to see that we got everyone to leave and when we were sure, I left. I don’t recall whether the fire alarms went off. Funny how many details I have forgotten over the years. You might think I’d remember it so clearly but not thinking or talking about my experience for years has faded my memory.
3. Were you allowed to get your personal items, such as a purse or take anything with you when you exited the library?
Luckily since I was at my desk. I shut down my computer and grabbed my purse, pretty much as a reflex action. During fire drills, it might take a while to get back into the building and I seem to always need a tissue. My friends who left with only their Pentagon badges, which we had to wear at all times, were not allowed back into the PL to retrieve their purses and belongings for several months. They had to cancel credit cards, replace driver’s licenses, and any important items. They also didn’t have money or their Metro passes unless they kept them with their badge..
4. How did you exit the Library and where did you go?
Since our usual exit route had smoke, we exited into the A ring through the PL’s main door and over to the exit to north parking. Going through the Pentagon there was no sign of smoke and the only unusual thing was people moving fast towards the exit or in the direction of where the smoke was seen by my coworkers. I felt no great danger as I exited the building.
I carpooled with Ann Parham who was the Army Librarian and worked in an office in the renovated and reopened part of Wedge 1. We were parked in north parking so I went to her car. Once I was outside the building, security guards were telling people to move away from the building and smoke was visible around the side of the building that faces Henderson Hall and Arlington Cemetery. People were saying that a plane had hit the building. It was a very sunny and warm day for September. Very soon the guards were telling us that we had to move farther away from the parking lot because there was another airplane that could be headed for us. I scribbled a note to Ann that I was out of the building and OK, placed it under the windshield wiper and started walking away with some of my coworkers.
5. How did they account for everyone and were there any library staff who could not be accounted for?
There was no opportunity to account for everyone once we evacuated. It was standard procedure to insure no one was left behind during a fire drill and that was done before the PL Director Katherine Earnest and the last librarians left. Once outside we were told to move farther from the building and parking lot so couldn’t meet at our assigned spot. Ms. Earnest and division supervisors called employees at home to account for everyone. I know it must have taken quite a while and I’m not sure when Ms. Earnest arrived home. Cell phones were not working by the time we were out of the building and moving. The call volume had crashed the system. I’m not sure when cell service was restored since I didn’t own a cell phone at the time. By the next day I heard that everyone was accounted for and all were unscathed.
6. How and when did you get home?
We had walked some distance from the parking lot and came to a road. A woman pulled her car to the side of the road and yelled out that she was headed to Alexandria and could give a ride to anyone who needed one. I told my friends to jump in and we could go to my house. I am eternally grateful to this woman and regret that even though she told us her name, none of us could remember it later. She was a real good Samaritan to the 4 of us.
She asked where in Alexandria we wanted to go. Since one of my friends lived in Maryland and rode the Metro to work, I asked her to drop us at the King Street Metro. My house is within walking distance so the rest of us could go there and use our land line to call their families.
As we traveled towards Alexandria listening to the car radio, we were hearing all the confusing and sometimes inaccurate reports. Traffic was getting heavy, and our angel was getting worried about getting home to her family. She asked if we would mind if she dropped us off in Old Town rather than at the Metro. I knew that she had saved us a lot of walking on a hot day and that we could easily walk from there. We thanked her profusely as she dropped us off. I only wish I could have thanked her more.
We were all hot, thirsty, and eager to contact our families. We found a little shop where we could buy cold drinks and use a pay phone. I was able to call my husband at home to tell him that I’m OK and will be arriving with friends. We walked to the Metro and checked that it was running through to Maryland. I gave Shirley money for the ride home and my home phone number in case the Metro stranded her in Virginia and wished her luck. The rest of us continued on foot to my house.
7. How did you feel during and after the evacuation?
I didn’t feel in immediate danger of losing my life at any point. I did feel shocked at what I saw happening in New York and that a plane crashed into my workplace. I was relieved that there had been no smoke in the PL even though there was a fire not that far away in the building. I knew from previous events that there could be a fire in a part of the Pentagon that I was not even aware of till the next day or more. The building was built during wartime to withstand bombing and to limit damage. That and its sheer size made me more confident that we could walk out safely.
I was more concerned after I knew that it was a plane that struck the building and when we were told there was an unaccounted-for plane that might be headed for us. It was a totally unplanned for type of evacuation so everyone was on their own when we were ordered to get away. As we were walking, I was thinking how I’d get home if I wasn’t able to go back and find Ann. Pentagon Metro was out of the question, Pentagon City would have meant going back through the south parking lot to cross under 395, and I wasn’t sure if Metro from Arlington Cemetery would have taken me past the Pentagon to get to Alexandria. I didn’t know the bus routes on streets near the Pentagon. I had used an express bus from Fairlington to the Pentagon on occasion but figured I’d have to change buses in order to get from Arlington to Alexandria. Everything was happening fast. News was sketchy and hard to come by as I walked so evaluating options was very difficult. I really didn’t have time to feel scared because I was trying to figure out what to do. When the wonderful lady offered us a ride, it beat all the options I had in mind. I was very relieved to know I could get to Alexandria and confident that I’d be able to walk from there. I wasn’t sure what forms of public transportation were working or how well but I can walk 10 miles .
8. What did you do the next day or the next week?
I was told to stay home until notified where to report to work by my supervisor. On the 12th I talked with family and friends who called to see if I was OK, checked in with coworkers to see how they got home, and called a friend who worked across the street from the World Trade Center in NYC. I don’t recall how long it was till we were told to report to an office building in Crystal City. When we first arrived at our temporary space in recently vacated offices it had been stripped to the bare concrete floor, walls between rooms were sparse and showed signs that it was expected they would be replaced. Furniture was an odd assortment of old metal desks and various chairs. We didn’t have computers or access to internet so couldn’t really accomplish work tasks like database searches or looking for material in the library catalog. We moved several times to different locations in those office buildings as better space was available. Equipment improved and it felt less like being a refugee.
We could not access the library collection in the Pentagon or any personal belongings for 2 months. That part of the building was considered a crime scene and no one was allowed in. It also took time for an assessment of the building to determine if it was structurally safe. There were fires in the roof area that had to be fought for days and more water was used.
The PL Director was only able to go into the Library after a few weeks to assess what damage was done. By that point there was water and mold from the water used to fight the fires.
9. How were they able to save the materials in the library? What was saved? Did you have a role in that?
Most of the Library materials were saved due to the efforts of the PL Director. She made the case for hiring a firm that specializes in remediation after fires or flooding. They brought in fans and dehumidifiers to reduce the dampness and stop further mold growth. I didn’t have any specific role in the efforts. The PL staff were doing whatever tasks the Director assigned them. I worked off site at the National Defense University Library for a short while because they offered office space and their computer access until we had that in the Crystal City offices.
10. How long did it take for you to feel ‘normal’? When were you first allowed back in the library?
The Pentagon Library never felt normal to me again. The Library never reopened in the old space in wedge 2 or in the space that was designated in Wedge 1 before 9/11. I left the Pentagon Library for another job in January 2002. Books were moved into space in the Crystal City office building as the PL Director wrangled to get space anywhere in the Pentagon to provide service and let our community know we were still able to assist with their information needs.
I recall that it was about 2 months before people were allowed back to get their purses, car keys, house keys, cell phones and important papers. It was a hard hat area, no electricity for lights and instructions to not spend any more time than necessary getting only the most important items. Later we were allowed to clear out our desks.
11. Is there anything you would like to share with us about the experience?
I have led a very fortunate life. From growing up in a loving middle-class family in rural central Pennsylvania, to having a rewarding career doing work I really enjoyed, to good health and good luck in more ways than I can count, I have benefited from circumstances beyond my control. I can’t claim to deserve the luck that allowed me to walk out of the Pentagon and have a total stranger offer me a ride home. I think of the people who lost their lives, had injuries and a traumatic exit (like my carpool partner Ann), or the horrible journeys that some of my coworkers had getting home. I have no words to express my gratitude for a million things that could have gone wrong that didn’t for me on that memorable day. My hope is that I can return the favor of the woman who went out of her way to assist strangers.
One way to assist strangers is to remind people to keep their Metro card (your local transit pass) and some form of money with their government badge. In case you must evacuate quickly you will have means to get home. If your workplace allows you to keep your phone at your desk or on your person, you may be able to keep your pass and money in your phone case. Having a plan on how to get home or to some agreed upon meeting place really pays off in an emergency. I doubt that anyone in Washington, DC expected to have to evacuate their workplace due to an earthquake when one struck in 2011. Fires, shootings, and other extreme events can and do happen. Please give some thought to how you could get home if something awful happens or how you would let your family/friends know where you are or where you would go if you can’t contact them by phone or email. Ask your supervisor if you don’t know the evacuation and meet up plan for your workplace.